Order Human Growth Assignment

Order Human Growth Assignment
Infants grow at a rapid pace over the first two years of their lives (see Figure 4-1)
5 months: average birthweight doubles to around 15 pounds
1 year: weight triples to about 22 pounds
End of 2nd year: average child weighs around four times as much as he or she did at birth
Physical Growth:
The Rapid Advances of Infancy
Not all parts of an infant’s body grow at the same rate
Birth: head accounts for one-quarter of the newborn’s entire body size
During 1st and 2nd year: rest of the body begins to catch up
Physical Growth:
The Rapid Advances of Infancy
Can you give an example of each principle?
Order Human Growth Assignment
Define:
Cephalocaudal principle states that growth follows a direction and pattern that begins with the head and upper body parts and then proceeds to the rest of the body.
Proximodistal principle states that development proceeds from the center of the body outward. See Table 4.1.
Principle of hierarchical integration states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently. Later these simple skills are integrated into more complex ones.
Principle of the independence of systems, which suggests that different body systems grow at different rates.
Birth: around 7 pounds; 20 inches
5 months: doubled birth weight
12 months: tripled birth weight; 30 inches
2nd year: slows; 4x birth weight; 36 inches
Nervous System and Brain:
The Foundations of Development
Neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system
Nervous system comprises the brain and the nerves that extend throughout the body
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How great brains grow!
Birth
100-200 billion neurons
Relatively few neurons-neuron connections
During first two years
Billions of new connections established and become more complex
Order Human Growth Assignment
Birth: Neurons multiply at an amazing rate prior to birth. At some points in prenatal development, cell division creates some 250,000 additional neurons every minute.
By year 2: The intricacy of neural connections continues to increase throughout life. In fact, in adulthood a single neuron is likely to have a minimum of 5,000 connections to other neurons or other body parts.
Use it or lose it!
Babies are actually born with many more neurons than they need
Although synapses are formed throughout life, based on our changing experiences, the billions of new synapses infants form during the first two years are more numerous than necessary
Synaptic pruning
Unused neurons are eliminated
Allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons
Development of nervous system proceeds most effectively through loss of cells
Myelin
Order Human Growth Assignment
Synaptic pruning: elimination of unused neurons that allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons. Unlike most other aspects of growth, then, the development of the nervous system proceeds most effectively through the loss of cells.
Neurons that do not become interconnected with other neurons as the infant’s experience of the world increases become unnecessary.
They eventually die out, increasing the efficiency of the nervous system.
Myelin: Axons of neurons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that, like the insulation on an electric wire, provides protection and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses.
Contributes to increased weight of brain
Even though many neurons are lost, the increasing size and complexity of the remaining ones contribute to impressive brain growth.
A baby’s brain triples its weight during his or her first 2 years of life, and it reaches more than three-quarters of its adult weight and size by the age of 2.
Coming to terms with your brain…
Order Human Growth Assignment
Like all cells in the body, neurons have a cell body containing a nucleus.
But unlike other cells, neurons have a distinctive ability: They can communicate with other cells, using a cluster of fibers called dendrites at one end.
Dendrites receive messages from other cells.
At their opposite end, neurons have a long extension called an axon, the part of the neuron that carries messages destined for other neurons.
Neurons do not actually touch one another. Rather, they communicate with other neurons by means of chemical messengers, neurotransmitters, that travel across the small gaps, known as synapses, between neurons.
Form and Function: Brain Growth
Neurons reposition themselves with growth, becoming arranged by function
Cerebral cortex
Subcortical levels
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Some move into the cerebral cortex, the upper layer of the brain, while others move to subcortical levels, which are below the cerebral cortex.
As time passes, however, the cells in the cerebral cortex, which are responsible for higher-order processes such as thinking and reasoning, become more developed and interconnected.
The subcortical levels, which regulate such fundamental activities as breathing and heart rate, are the most fully developed at birth.
Don’t shake the baby!
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Brain sensitive to form forms of injury
Shaking can lead to brain rotation within skull
Blood vessels tear  severe medical problems, long-term disabilities, and sometimes death
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Brain Development: Influences and Definitions
Order Human Growth Assignment
Define:
Plasticity: the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience
Sensitive period is a specific, but limited, time, usually early in an organism’s life, during which the organism is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to some particular facet of development.
What do babies do all day?
Integrating the bodily systems: Life cycles of infancy
Rhythms: repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior
Wake
Sleep
Eat
Eliminate

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